I estimate that the research represented
HERE MIGHT DESERVE 3 OR EVEN might deserve 3 or even stars but the author has not wrung a
Very Readable Text Out Of readable text out of materialThe main idea I ve gotten from the first three chapters is that the distinguishing feature of human communication is that we understand cooperation in a way that the beasts do not The author is at great pains to show that the sounds made by animals which alert their fellows their conspecifics as the text insists on calling them are reflexive rather than deliberate The primal unit of communication which leads to language the author argues is POINTING at something which we understand from our fellow humans means that there is something of benefit at the other end of the arrow because we understand the intention of the gesture as charitable He uotes study after study demonstrating that chimpanzees simply don t get this idea even after educational efforts And dogs which have been trained to point for the benefit of humans and indeed can communicate with familiar humans in other meaningful ways domestication don t point for the benefit of other dogsI d follow this line of reasoning farther in the direction it points if the text were inviting Kitap olduk a iyi organize edilmi ve isminin hakk n vererek sistematik bir ekilde insan ileti iminin Night of a Thousand Claws Give Yourself Goosebumps No 28 kenlerini sorguluyor Bununla birlikte evirionusunda organize edilmi ve isminin hakk n vererek sistematik bir ekilde insan ileti iminin Civilization And Its Part in My Downfall kenlerini sorguluyor Bununla birlikte eviri Shadow Warriors The Untold Story of Who Is Really Subverting America's War on Terror konusunda nt oldu unu d n yorum Bu durum hem zg n metnin bilimsel terimlerinin T rk e Dangerous to Kiss Dangerous kar l n n olmamas hem de m mk n oldu unca z T rk eullanma Out of the Shadows kayg s ndanaynaklan yor Bu nedenle metni takip etmek zorla yor 3 y ld z vermemin sebebi de bu ngilizce metinden okumak daha sa l The Divine Life of Animals kl olacakt ran s nday m If Chomsky s discontinuity view lies on an end of a spectrum this book argues for an idea that lies on the opposite end I appreciate that the arguments put forward in this book are experimentally backed which leaves little room for conceptual proposals It s good to read about opposing views on language evolution I have read a great deal of what the formalists had to say about this matter and I started my reading list on the functionalists view with this book I was hoping that this book would address generativists argument against the continuity theory which this book adopts For example generativists claim that communicative efficiency loses out to computational efficiency as observed in the universal property of displacement Generativists claim that the property of displacement taxes cognitive resources that are otherwise available and hence if language had evolved only to serve as a communicative tool we would expect linguistic operations to be performed with a minimal demand of cognitive resources I guess it s the reader s job to connect the dots Michael Tomasello psic logo de desenvolvimento e diretor do Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology e apesar da sua investiga o n o ser na Comunica o o seu trabalho e em particular este livro Origins of Human Communication 2008 um contributo fundamental para a compreens o dauilo de ue a Comunica o feita A pergunta de partida muito simples sendo os chimpanz s reconhecidamente t o inteligentes porue ue eles n o falamContinuar a ler The book description is enough to Poison Sleep Marla Mason know and it is stated with greater precision than I can muster I will be reading all of this man s titles Enough said Excellent and original book on language in which he designates the sharing of intentions as its central hallmark Tomasello lays out a very plausible and radical theory of the phylogenetic origins of language in this highly readable and absorbing book This uestion of language s origins has implications for the essential functions of our natural languages the nature of semantic meaning and the social character of our species His theory can show that we are interconnected in a very deep manner that is not evident especially in our contemporary individualistic and materialist scientific culture I will return to this last point after summarizing theey points in the chapters of this book The basic thesis is that our natural languages evolutionarily originated in hand signing and gesture and the possibilities of semantic meaning depend on our common ground or shared background Cygnet knowledge and experienced based in general culturalnowledge or individual shared experiences For example we are out on a walk together and I point to the. Human communication is grounded in fundamentally cooperative even shared intentions In this original and provocative account of the evolutionary origins of human communication Michael Tomasello connects the fundamentally cooperative structure of human communication initially discovered by Paul Grice to the especially cooperative structure of human as opposed to other primate social interaction Tomasello argues that human cooperative communication rests on a psychological infrastructure of shared intentionality joint attention common ground evolved originally for collaboration and culture generally The basic motives of the infrastructure are helping and sharing humans communicat. .
To engage in the actions that would
Be Most Effective For The most effective for the as a whole Mutually helpful behaviors become increasingly possible our ancestors could develop greater motivations to help one another out since this would benefit the group and thereby themselves as a whole Apes are capable only of reuesting or like demanding from others Humans in contrast are capable of informing and sharing we can offer advice and information to help one another and we enjoy letting others in on the things we appreciate so we can appreciate these things together This makes Gricean communicative intent possible I want you to notice that I purposefully intend to let you נוכחים נפקדיםNokhehim Nifkadim know about X It is not just that I want you tonow about X This is the basis of joint intentionality It is the starting point for us to form strong coordinative groups social identities and cultures and massive common ground which is all reuisite for the rich natural language distinctive of humans Parts of the book I have not summarized include Tomasello s review of the empirical literature on language formation in human infants which amounts to the ontogenetic story of language That is the focus of chapter 4 Tomasello also gives an account of how our full blown natural languages might arise from the basic gestural communication that he accounts for in the phylogenetic story That happens in chapter 6I d highly recommend this book to any interested why humans are distinct from other organisms and what makes our natural language categorically different from the communicative systems of other organisms The book is very easy to read and presents deep ideas Its various parts fit systematically together and the writing is rarely redundant I d like to write a bit on a conseuence of all of this which Tomasello briefly raises in the conclusion Whenever we apprehend a case of language use eg as I write out this sentence and it is intelligible to me the intelligibility and meaning of the language is based in this common ground we share with one another This common ground consists in all the objects and events that we have jointly attended to we have had shared experiences of these things recognize that we share them and intend for each other to recognize that we each intend for each other to share them Thus the meaning of this sentence I m writing is founded in intersubjective experiences it is not strictly I who am speaking but the possibilities of what I say are given by social groups or partners of which I have been participant Poetically speaking it is humans coalesced via joint intentionality who speak through my tongue it is not any individual person not I or you who says my words I don t now what this means on the literal register yet and look forward to thinking about it I teach this book at the University of Tehran for my course on Human Communication this book actually revolutionized teaching human communication
attending this the whole thinking system of my students change I have also translated this book into Persian Result of than 20 years of comparative experiment in apes and human psychology this book highlights the cooperative and collaborative roots of human thought and language in a manner that classical theoretical sociologists and anthropologists building and justifiying collective concepts as they were could only have dreamt of A book of the first importance in science and moral reasoning at large A very convincing account of how the language might have emerged from a cognitivefunctional perspective The hypothesis is that the spoken language must have developed only after there was some ind of gesture language which combined pointing and iconic gestures Although other mammals in particular apes use gestures to communicate experiments show that they all lack shared intentionality and bird view perspective on the processes they are involved in These in turn are prereuisites for recursive mind reading understanding what the others An einem Tag wie diesem know and what theynow that I Undressing Mercy know etc and even grammar each activity or process defines roles which are filled by participants A few things I found hard to believe though like that animals simply synchronize their activities without ever understanding that they have a shared goal towards which they are working together This seems to run counter to what isnown about ants and bee. Conventional communication first gestural and then vocal evolved only after humans already possessed these natural gestures and their shared intentionality infrastructure along with skills of cultural learning for creating and passing along jointly understood communicative conventions Challenging the Chomskian view that linguistic nowledge is innate Tomasello proposes instead that the most fundamental aspects of uniuely human communication are biological adaptations for cooperative social interaction in general and that the purely linguistic dimensions of human communication are cultural conventions and constructions created by and passed along within particular cultural group. Sky The semantic meaning of this gesture depends on our common ground If we had just been talking about how good the weather is today this gesture might express the meaning indeed the weather is great look how sunny is is If instead we had been having an existentialist conversation about how insignificant and fragile humanity is this gesture might instead HAVE THE MEANING YES THESE HEAVENS AND THE UNIVERSE the meaning yes these heavens and the universe so immense and we humans are nothing This explanation of semantic meaning applies to verbal linguistic utterances too though the full explanation is of course much complicated than this Tomasello lays out this basic account in the first chapterIn the second chapter Tomasello reviews scientific findings regarding communication in the great ape species Apes are able to perform simple mind reading they now others have intentional states and can be sensitive to those So they are capable of intentional communication Speakers have a sense of the recipient s state and can address them accordingly and recipients Aftertaste know that the speaker s communicative motions are directed towards them specifically The majority of communication and the most sophisticated forms of communication all happen in their practices of gesturing and signing Apes can gesture wait for the recipient s reactions and modulate their gestures in response The vast majority of their gestures are used to get attention or to make demands Vocalizations in contrast express only basic emotions and are purely causal conseuences of being overtaken by certain emotions ie fear Out of their gestural repertoire certain cases of gestures to get others attention are the most sophisticated and the likely phylogenetic antecedent for human communication Apes can direct others attention to objects in their environment There is some action the speaker wants from the recipient and the speaker draws the recipient s attention to the object to get this done the speaker will adjust and change her gestures if the recipient doesn t respond according to her desires This communicative move implies a capacity for symbolism different gestures can be used to symbolize or represent some goal In contrast the majority of gestural communication lacks this symbolic dimension It mostly consists in apes performing the first steps of an action seuence and the recipient s recognition that this entire action is intended In that case there is no symbolization these steps are a literal part of the action seuence From chapters 3 6 Tomasello goes into human communication Tomasello s thesis is that the singular major skill that humans gained over apes and that makes all the difference in our language is our human capacity for joint intentionality When A and B form a joint goal Anows that B is aware of what A Biographical Memoir of Daniel Boone knows and of the fact that Anows what B is aware of Joint intentionality is defined by this recursive structure or back and forthing of each other s intentional states This capacity enables us to be especially sensitive to one another s background and to form greater common ground This common ground the shared background nowledge and experience that can serve as the communicative context in which simple gestures and signs can possibly gain complex meaningTomasello tells an evolutionary story for how we became capable of joint intentionality Apes are capable of collaborative activity but it is not properly coordinative They often hunt together as groups but they never form action plans beforehand and each ape s behavior is geared solely for the maximization of their individual benefit not for the benefit of the group This comes out in the fact that when a group succeeds in attaining itsafter attending this
prey individuals will try their best to secureindividuals will try their best to secure much food as they can for solely themselves there is no motivation or cognitive capacity to distribute foods evenly Given this ineuity apes are each motivated to be the one who ills the prey first so they can have the biggest chance to secure the most food for themselves This makes it impossible for groups to function in the most effective way to secure their goal they decrease their chances as a group for attaining prey Tomasello speculates that our evolutionary ancestors became capable of agreeing on sharing the spoils eually among themselves If this eual distribution is guaranteed then individuals in a group would be freed. E to reuest help inform others of things helpfully and share attitudes as a way of bonding within the cultural group These cooperative motives each created different functional pressures for conventionalizing grammatical constructions Reuesting help in the immediate you and me and here and now for example reuired very little grammar but informing and sharing reuired increasingly complex grammatical devices Drawing on empirical research into gestural and vocal communication by great apes and human infants much of it conducted by his own research team Tomasello argues further that humans' cooperative communication emerged first in the natural gestures of pointing and pantomiming.