PDF FREE Why We Cooperate ↠ Michael Tomasello
Deas 1 how children earn
to cooperate and 2 why human beings choose to cooperate Intended for an academic rather cooperate and 2 why human beings choose to cooperate Intended for an academic rather a mainstream audience Tomasello has written a short sweet technical introduction to his theory of cooperation which is a pretty hot topic in cognitive circles these days The book was adapted from a series of The Bitter End lectures Stanford s 2008 Tanner Lectures so it isn t as heavily footnoted or uite as academic in tone as an academic journal article but it doesn t spend uite as much time on background and basics as a typical pop cog book Still it does cover aot of territory in its short ength only 172 pages with
pretty big marginsTomasello explores cooperation with several different comparisons He is big marginsTomasello explores cooperation with several different comparisons He is famous for comparing infants and toddlers to young chimpanzees but that #Is Just One Aspect He Also Explores Cross Cultural Differences #just one aspect he also explores cross cultural differences example Children and chimps however are a very intriguing place to start which is why the New York Times eaned heavily on his work in the December 2009 article We May Be Born With an Urge to Help well worth readingHe focuses on two basic phenomena p xvii1 Altruism one individual sacrificing in some way for another and2 Collaboration multiple individuals working together for mutual benefit I once abandoned a fiction book after the author closed a chapter with this ine And that was the ast good day The book had made me miserable up to that point a third of the way through I didn t want to spend another week being made even miserableHere we have a non fiction book with a fine premise a promising opening and then rapidly diminishing returns Just as I wonder to myself Is this worth finishing comes this bombshellThrough processes that we do not understand very well mutual expectations arise I will not pretend that I have any fundamentally new answers to this one of the most fundamental uestions in all of the social sciences where do these cooperative norms come from and how do they workHe goes on to elaborate but as suggested by the above we get speculation not educationThis book is called Why We Cooperate It was on page 89 that I discovered the reader would not find out. Children and great apes help identify the underlying psychological processes that very Planning: As Exciting as It Gets or Plans Were Born to Be Changed likely supported humans' earliest forms of complex collaboration and ultimately our uniue forms of cultural organization from the evolution of tolerance and trust to the creation of such groupevel structures as cultural norms and institutions Scholars Carol Dweck Joan Silk Brian Skyrms and Elizabeth Spelke respond to Tomasello's findings and explore the implication.
free read Why We CooperateUick read but will make you realize how much of human nature we think we know and take for #granted when we are much stranger creatures than we ever consider Especially pushes back on #when we are much stranger creatures than we ever consider Especially pushes back on and cynical views of human nature when one considers we are by far the most cooperative animal we know of so far Tomasello has come to my attention from two sub areas of interest The
first was Axel Honneth s poorly developed book on reification According to Honneth Tomasello has empirically demonstrated that infants have anwas Axel Honneth s poorly developed book on reification According to Honneth Tomasello has empirically demonstrated that infants have an faculty of deep empathy and recognition o This is a short ittle book But it s packed with interesting ideasTomasello s basic proposition as I understand it is that humans cooperate because we have an ability to
share intentions in a symbolic space and we ike to be helpfulintentions in a symbolic space and we ike to be helpful sharing informationHe tries to tease apart three different types of altruism or helpfulness two of which we share with other great apes The third which we do not share with apes is informative helping He refers to experiments done with children of various ages from about six months and onward The results seem to indicate that children of about 14 months of age can infer what the intentions of an adult are and will spontaneously inform them of where a tool is that they need to inact their intentions Eg point to a hidden stapler for an adult that was previously engaged in staplingThe book benefits from comments from other scientists at the end on the points on which they concur and differ from Tomasello Joan Silk Carol Dweck Brian Skyrms and Elizabeth Spelke are the commenters An interesting addendum to the notion of shared intentionality and the emergence of culture is the following paper chapter by evolutionary biologist Randolph NesseNesse RM Social selection and the origins of culture In Schaller M Heine SJ Norenzayan A Yamagishi T Kameda T editors Evolution culture and the human mind Philadelphia PA Psychology Press p 137 50 2010 Felt ike I was in one of his Queen's Apprentice: Archduchess Elizabeth, Empress Maria, the Habsburgs, and the Holy Roman Empire, 1554-1569 lectures and that made the material accessible The additional and sometimes contrary viewpoints at the end were a nice complement Concise and thought provoking Understanding cooperation as a distinctly human combination of innate andearned behaviorDrop something in front of a two year old and she's An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of States: How Taxes, Energy, and Worker Freedom Change Everything likely to pick it up for you This is not aearned behavior psychologist Michael Tomasello argues Through observations of young children in experiments he himself has designed Tomasello shows that children are naturally and uniuely cooperative Put through similar experiments for example apes demonstrate the abili. ,
Istillation of the current debate over what makes us uniue as humans
The First Part Usesfirst part uses studies with primates to make the case that we are in fact uniue in our social interactions while the second part offers a possible evolutionary trajectory for how we got here I found the second part marginally novel and interesting Return to Quail Crossings largely due to its discussion of the social norms and institutions that facilitate a shared intentionalityI saw another reviewer disappointed that the eponymous uestion was never decisively answered That s worth a note I think While Tomasello makes an excellent and well supported argument he s not arrogant enough to claim that he s reached the final eternal solution The field is young and many experiments still need to be conducted to conclusively settle the claims at play Many popular books by scientists in young fields serve to espouse specific idiosyncratic research programs than to capture the overall state of the debate By writing carefully and including a forum in which eually distinguished contemporaries have responded with counterpoints Tomasello avoids this ego move For those who enjoy watching science develop in real time this is an exciting document This book has aofty goal explaining how human altruism cooperativeness developed given that our closest relatives in the animal kingdom aren t altruistic or cooperative only manages to barely skim the surface of the issue This book is actually a collection of ectures that Tomasello gave with some short commentary from other scholars at the end The only problem is there isn t much new ground covered here compared to Tomasello s other work If you want a in depth coverage of the evolution of communication cooperation altruism etc I d recommend reading one of his other books The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition That being said this book would make a good introduction to Tomasello s research for people who don t know about it and since it s so short it a pretty painless #Way Of Gaining Exposure #of gaining exposure the field Based on a series of ectures that the author gave at Stanford University in 2009 this tiny volume explores two key Ty to work together and share but choose not to As children grow their almost reflexive desire to help without expectation of reward becomes shaped by culture They become aware of being a member of a group Groups convey mutual expectations and thus may either encourage or discourage altruism and collaboration Either way cooperation emerges as a distinctly human combination of innate and earned behavior In Why We Cooperate Tomasello's studies of young. .